Asher B. Durand Papers, 1812-1886, Manuscripts and Archives, New York Public Library, New York, N.Y.

Luman Reed Papers, 1820-1895, New-York Historical Society Mss Collection.

Thomas Cole, Catskill Sketchbook, Prints and Drawings Department, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.

Thomas Cole Papers, 1821-1863, Manuscripts and Special Collections, New York State Library (NYSL), Albany, N.Y.

Thomson-Cole papers, Greene County Historical Society, Coxsackie, N.Y.


Archives of American Art, Smithsonian Institution:

Detroit Institute of Arts:

Greene County Historical Society:

Hudson River Museum:

Hudson River Portfolio, featuring the collections of the New York Public Library:

Hudson River School Art Trail:

Hudson River School Glossary, The Albany Institute of History and Art:

James Fenimore Cooper's The Pioneers

Metropolitan Museum of Art:

Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, Utica, New York:

National Gallery of Art:

New-York Historical Society:

New York State Library, Albany:

Official Tourism Site of the Catskills:

Official website of the Thomas Cole House:

Olana State Historic Site:

Smithsonian American Art Museum, Inventories of American Painting and Sculpture, Thomas Cole:

The Newington-Cropsey Foundation:

Thomas Cole's "Essay on American Scenery":

Thomas Cole's poetry:

Wadsworth Atheneum, Hartford, Conn.:

White Mountain Art:

William Cullen Bryant's "Funeral Oration" for Cole:


Anderson, Patricia. The Course of Empire: The Erie Canal and the New York Landscape, 1825-1875. Rochester: Memorial Art Gallery of the University of Rochester, 1984.

Avery, Kevin J. and Franklin Kelly, eds. Hudson River School Visions: The Landscapes of Sanford R. Gifford. Assisted by Claire A. Conway, with essays by Heidi Applegate and Eleanor Jones Harvey. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art; New Haven: Yale University Press, 2003.

Baigell, Matthew. Thomas Cole. New York: Watson-Guptill Publications, 1981.

Barnhill, Georgia B. "Depictions of the White Mountains in the Popular Press." Historical New Hampshire; 54: 3/4 (Fall/Winter 1999) 107 - 123.

Bedell, Rebecca Bailey. The Anatomy of Nature: Geology and American Landscape Painting, 1825-1875. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2001.

Campbell, Catherine and Marcia Blaine. NH Scenery: a Dictionary of Nineteenth-century Artists of New Hampshire Mountain Landscapes. Canaan, NH: Phoenix Press, 1985.

Campbell, Catherine. "Two's Company: The Diaries of Thomas Cole and Henry Cheever Pratt on Their Walk Through Crawford Notch, 1828," Historical New Hampshire; 33 1/2 (Winter, 1978). 308 - 333.

As Time Passes Over the Land: White Mountain Art. Exhibition catalogue, Karl Drerup Art Gallery, Plymouth State University, Plymouth, NH.  February 8 - April 11, 2011.

A Sweet Foretaste of Heaven:  Artists in the White Mountains 1830 - 1930. Exhibition catalogue, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College.  September 10 - October 30, 1988. Hanover, NH: University Press of New England, 1988.

Consuming Views: Art and Tourism in the White Mountains 1850 - 1900. Exhibition Catalog, Museum of New Hampshire History, September 16, 2006 - May 6, 2007 Concord, N.H. : New Hampshire Historical Society; Hanover and London : Distributed by University Press of New England, 2006.

The White Mountains: Place and Perceptions. Exhibition catalog, University Art Galleries, University of New Hampshire. September 8 - October 29, 1980. Durham, NH. University Press of New England: Hanover, NH. 1980.

Civosky, Nikolai Jr. "The Ravages of the Axe: The Meaning of the Tree Stump in Nineteenth-Century Art," Art Bulletin 61 (1979): 611-626.

Cole, Thomas. The Collected Essays and Prose Sketches. Edited By Marshall Tymn. St. Paul: The John Colet Press, 1980.

Cole, Thomas. The Correspondence Of Thomas Cole and Daniel Wadsworth: Letters in the Watkinson Library, Trinity College, Hartford and New York State Library, Albany N.Y. Edited by J. Bard McNulty. Hartford: Connecticut Historical Society, 1983.

Cole, Thomas. Thomas Cole's Poetry: The Collected Poems Of America's Foremost Painter of the Hudson River School Reflecting His Feelings for Nature and the Romantic Spirit of the Nineteenth Century. Compiled and edited by Marshall B. Tymn. York, Penns.: Liberty Cap Books, 1972.

Cole, Thomas. "Essay on American Scenery," American Monthly Magazine 1 (January 1836): 1-12.

Comstock, J.L. Outlines of Geology. New York: Robinson, Pratt, 1838.

Dunlap, William. History of the Rise and Progress of the Arts of Design in the United States, 3 vols. New York, 1834; 1918 (reprint).

Durand, Asher B. "Letters on Landscape Painting," in American Art: 1700-1960; Sources and Documents. Edited by John McCoubrey. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, 1965.

Durand, John. The Life and Times of Asher B. Durand. Introduction by Linda S. Ferber. Hensonville, N.Y.: Black Dome Press, 2007 (reprint).

Earenfight, Phillip, and Nancy Siegel, eds. Within the Landscape: Essays on Nineteenth-Century American Art and Culture. University Park, Penns.: The Pennsylvania State University Press, 2005.

Felker, Tracie. "First Impressions: Thomas Cole's Drawings of His 1825 Trip up the Hudson River," American Art Journal 24, nos. 1/2 (1992): 60-93.

Ferber, Linda S., ed. Kindred Spirits: Asher B. Durand and the American Landscape. New York: Brooklyn Museum in association with D Giles Limited, 2007.

Field, George. Chromatics: or, an Essay on the Analogy and Harmony of Colours. London: Printed for the author by A.J. Valpy and sold by Mr. Newman, 1817.

Flexner, James Thomas. History of American Painting: That Wilder Image, the Native School from Thomas Cole to Winslow Homer. Boston: Little, Brown, 1962; New York: Dover Publications, 1970.

Foshay, Ella M. and Barbara Novak. Intimate Friends: Thomas Cole, Asher B. Durand, and William Cullen Bryant. New York: The New-York Historical Society, 2000.

Foshay, Ella M. Mr. Luman Reed's Picture Gallery: A Pioneer Collection of American Art. Introduction by Wayne Craven. Catalogue by Timothy Anglin Burgard. New York: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. in association with the New-York Historical Society, 1990.

Gildersleeve, Robert A. Catskill Mountain House Trail Guide: In the Footsteps of the Hudson River School.Hensonville, N.Y.: Black Dome Press, 2005.

Gillaspie, Caroline. "The Influence on and Application of Thomas Cole's Color Theories," paper presented at "Cedar Grove Intern Symposium," 13 September 2008.

Griffin, Randall C. "The Untrammeled Vision: Thomas Cole and the Dream of the Artist," Art Journal 52, no. 2 (Summer 1993): 66-73.

Harvey, Eleanor Jones. The Painted Sketch: American Impressions from Nature, 1830-1880. New York: Dallas Museum of Art in association with Harry N. Abrams, 1998.

Helmer, William F. Rip Van Winkle Railroads. Hensonville, N.Y.: Black Dome Press, 1999.

Hendricks, Gordon. Albert Bierstadt: Painter of the American West. New York, NY: Harry N. Abrams, Inc. 1974.

Hone, Philip. The Diary of Philip Hone. Edited by Allan Nevins. New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1927.

Horn, Field. The Greene County Catskills: A History. Hensonville, N.Y.: Black Dome Press, 1994.

Howat, John K. The Hudson River and its Painters. New York: Viking Press, 1972.

Huntington, Daniel C. The Landscapes of Frederic Edwin Church: Vision of an American Era. New York: George Braziller, 1966.

The Hudson River Portfolio. Views from drawings by W. G. Wall by John Hill. New York: Published by Henry I. Megarey, 1823-24.

Jarvis, Kimberly A. Franconia Notch and the Women Who Saved It.cite> Lebanon, NH.:University Press of New England, 2007.

Katlan, Alexander. "The American Artist's Tools and Materials for On-Site Oil Sketching," Journal of the American Institute for Conservation 38, no.1 (Spring 1999): 21-32.

Kelly, Franklin. Frederic Edwin Church and the National Landscape. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, Smithsonian Institution Press, 1988.

Kornhauser, Elizabeth Mankin and Amy Ellis. Hudson River School: Masterworks from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art. New Haven: Yale University Press in association with the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art, 2003.

Maddox, Kenneth W. "Thomas Cole and the Railroad: Gentle Maledictions," Archives of American Art Journal 26, no. 1 (1986): 2-10.

Maynard, Barksdale W. "Thomas Cole Drawing on Stone Found at Cedar Grove," American Art Journal 30, nos. 1/2 (1999): 133-139.

McGrath, Robert. Gods in Granite: The Art of the White Mountains in New Hampshire. Syracuse, New York: Syracuse University Press, 2001.

Merritt, Howard S. To Walk with Nature: The Drawings of Thomas Cole. Yonkers, N.Y.: Hudson River Museum, 1981.

Miller, Angela L. The Empire of the Eye: Landscape Representation and American Cultural Politics, 1825-1875.Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1993.

Myers, Kenneth. The Catskills: Painters, Writers, and Tourists in the Mountains, 1820-1895. Yonkers, N.Y.: Hudson River Museum of Westchester, 1987.

Myers, Kenneth. "On the Cultural Construction of Landscape Experience: Contact to 1830," in American Iconology.Edited by David C. Miller. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.

Noble, Louis Legrand. The Life and Works of Thomas Cole. Edited by Elliot S. Vesell. Hensonville, N.Y.: Black Dome Press, 1997 (reprint).

Novak, Barbara. American Painting of the Nineteenth Century: Realism, Idealism, and the American Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Novak, Barbara. Nature and Culture: American Landscape and Painting, 1825-1875. New York: Oxford University Press, 1980.

Nygren, Edward J., Bruce Robertson, et al. Views and Visions: American Landscape before 1830. Washington, D.C.: The Corcoran Gallery of Art, 1986.

Oram, William and Charles Clarke. Precepts and Observations on the Art of Colouring in Landscape Painting. London: Printed for White and Cochranne by Richard Taylor, 1810.

Parry, Ellwood C., III. The Art of Thomas Cole: Ambition and Imagination. Newark, Dela.: University of Delaware Press, 1988.

Parry, Ellwood C., III. "Thomas Cole and the Problem of Figure Painting," American Art Journal 4, no. 1 (May 1972): 66-86.

Peck, H. Daniel. "Unlikely Kindred Spirits: A New Vision of Landscape in the Works of Henry David Thoreau and Asher B. Durand," American Literary History 17, no. 4 (2005): 687-713.

Phillips, Sandra S. and Linda Weintraub, eds. Charmed Places: Hudson River Artists and Their Houses, Studios, and Vistas. New York: Bard College and Vassar College in association with Harry N. Abrams, Inc., 1988.

Powell, Earl A. Thomas Cole. New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1990, 2000.

Rosenthal, Gertrude, Howard S. Merritt, William H. Gerdts, Jr., and Kay Silberfeld. Studies on Thomas Cole, An American Romanticist. Baltimore: Baltimore Museum of Art, 1967.

Schuyler, David. The New Urban Landscape: The Redefinition of City Form in Nineteenth-Century America. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986, 1988.

Schweizer, Paul D., Ellwood C. Parry III, and Dan A. Kushel. The Voyage of Life by Thomas Cole: Paintings, Drawings, and Prints. Utica: Museum of Art, Munson-Williams-Proctor Arts Institute, 1985.

Schweizer, Paul D. "'So Exquisite a Transcript': James Smillie's Engravings after Thomas Cole's Voyage of Life" (Part I), Imprint 11, no. 2 (Autumn 1986): 2-13.

Schweizer, Paul D. "'So Exquisite a Transcript': James Smillie's Engravings after Thomas Cole's Voyage of Life" (Part II), Imprint 12, no. 1 (Spring 1987): 13-24.

Sears, John. Sacred Places: American Tourist Attractions in the Nineteenth Century. New York: Oxford University Press, 1989.

Siegel, Nancy. Along The Juniata: Thomas Cole and the Dissemination of American Landscape Imagery. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 2003.

Simon, Janice. "'Naked Wastes . . . Glorious Woods': The Forest View of the White Mountains." Historical New Hampshire; 54: 3/4 (Fall/Winter 1999) 93 - 106.

Stebbins, Theodore E., with contributions by Eleanor Jones [Harvey], et al. The Lure of Italy: American Artists and the Italian Experience, 1760-1914. Boston: Museum of Fine Arts; New York: Harry N. Abrams, 1992.

Stilgoe, John R., Ellwood C. Parry III, Frances Dunwell, and Christine T. Robinson. Thomas Cole: Drawn to Nature.Albany: Albany Institute of History and Art, 1993.

Sweeney, J. Gray. "'Embued with Rare Genius:' Frederic Edwin Church's To the Memory of Cole,Smithsonian Studies in American Art 2, no. 1 (Winter 1988): 45-71.

The Metropolitan Museum of Art. American Paradise: The World of the Hudson River School. Introduction by John K. Howat with contributions by Oswaldo Rodriguez Roque, Kevin J. Avery, Barbara Ball Buff, et al. New York: Metropolitan Museum of Art, Distributed by Harry N. Abrams, 1987.

Truettner, William H. and Alan Wallach, eds., with contributions by J. Gray Sweeney, et al. Thomas Cole: Landscape into History. New Haven: Yale University Press; Washington, D.C.: National Museum of American Art, Smithsonian Institution, 1994.

Van Zandt, Roland. The Catskill Mountain House. New Brunswick, N.J.: Rutgers University Press, 1966.

Veith, Gene Edward. Painters of Faith: The Spiritual Landscape in Nineteenth-Century America. Washington, D.C.: Regnery Publishing, 2001.

Vogel, Charles. "Edward Hill (1843-1923), Artist." Historical New Hampshire; 44: 1/ 2 (Spring/Summer 1989) 5 - 41.

Wallach, Alan. "Cole, Byron and The Course of Empire," The Art Bulletin 50, no. 4 (1968): 375-379.

Wallach, Alan."Making a Picture of The View from Mt. Holyoke," in American Iconology. Edited by David C. Miller. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1993.

Wallach, Alan. "Thomas Cole and the Aristocracy," in Reading American Art. Edited by Marianne Doezema and Elizabeth Milroy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1998.

Wallach, Alan. "Thomas Cole's River in the Catskills as Antipastoral," The Art Bulletin 84, no. 2 (June 2002): 334-351.

Wallach, Alan."Wadsworth's Tower: an Episode in the History of American Landscape Vision," American Art 10 (Fall 1996): 8-27.

Wharton, Edith. The House of Mirth. First published in New York by Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905. London: Virago Press, 2007.

Williams, Henry. Elements of Drawing Exemplified in a Variety of Figures and Sketches of Parts of the Human Form Consisting of Twenty-six Copperplate Engravings, with Instructions for the Young Beginner. Boston: R.P. and C. Williams, 1818.

Willis, Nathaniel Parker. American Scenery, or, Land, Lake and River Illustrations of Transatlantic Nature. With illustrations by W.H. Bartlett. London: George Virtue, 1840.

Wilmerding, John, et al. American Light: The Luminist Movement, 1850-75. Washington, D.C.: National Gallery of Art, 1980.

Wilton, Andrew and Tim Barringer. American Sublime: Landscape Painting in the United States, 1820-1880.Princeton: Princeton University Press, 2002.

Zucker, Joyce. "From the Ground Up: The Ground in 19th-Century American Pictures," Journal for the American Institute for Conservation 38, no. 1 (Spring 1999): 3-20.

Related Information

This bibliography is a selective list of art history archives, publications, and websites that we have found useful for understanding the Hudson River School.

For more information about Thomas Cole and the Hudson River School see our educational website Explore Thomas Cole.






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